2006. The challenge of academic language. New York: Simon & Schuster. Journal of Abnormal Psychology 121(2):360-371. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. 1995. By about 30 months, they can successfully complete a spatial conflict task (Rothbart and Rueda, 2005). Conclusion About the Development of Language and Literacy Skills. Classification of double deficit groups across time: An analysis of group stability from kindergarten to second grade. A commonly included measurement that has been linked to children’s literacy development is extended discourse, defined as talk that “requires participants to develop understandings beyond the here and now and that requires the use of several utterances or turns to build a linguistic structure, such as in explanations, narratives, or pretend” (Snow et al., 2001, p. 2). The concept paper recommends collaboration between enterprises and NGOs for the development of local innovative companies such as self-help saving companies, lending groups and construction firms. Bull, R., R. S. Johnston, and J. The IOM report recommends that schools provide access to a minimum of 60 minutes of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity per day, including an average of. From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood development, edited by J. P. Shonkoff and D. A. Phillips. From pauses to clauses: Prosody facilitates learning of syntactic constituency. Koles, B., E. O’Connor, and K. McCartney. Masataka, N., T. Ohnishi, E. Imabayashi, M. Hirakata, and H. Matsuda. Educational and Child Psychology 21(1):32-45. Blair, C., and C. C. Raver. 1995. 2009. The most rapid increase in inhibitory control is between 5 and 8 years of age, although moderate improvements are seen up to young adulthood (Best et al., 2011). These skills had no explicit relation to the math curriculum. Psychological Science Online First 23(5):10.1177/0956797611429134. SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Homeless children and youth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. These quantifications begin as an undifferentiated, innate notion of amount of objects. Learning and Individual Differences 21(6):753-758. 2002. 2003. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 114(2):243-261. After listening to ten stories, their understanding of passages containing these syntactic structures was assessed. Thus, language may affect how children make meaning of mathematics but not its complex arithmetic procedures. Being bogged down by figuring out what a given word means slows the rate of information processing and limits what is learned from a sentence. 2012. Journal of Educational Psychology 105(3): 10.1037/a0032096. One of the best-documented methods for improving children’s vocabularies is interactive storybook reading between children and their caregivers (O’Connor, 2014). In human and animal studies, social companionship in the context of adver-, BOX 4-6 New York: Guilford Press. Baker, D., H. Knipe, J. Collins, J. Leon, E. Cummings, C. Blair, and D. Gramson. 2004. Child Development 83(4):1229-1244. Mills, C. M. 2013. Developmental Psychology 45(6):1740-1751. 2000. Early Development and Parenting 5:35-45. Both cognitive self-regulation and emotional self-regulation (discussed later in this chapter) contribute to socioemotional development and also play a role in learning. While their success in this regard pales by comparison with the more strategic efforts of a grade-schooler, their “let’s find out” approach to new challenges reflects their greater behavioral and mental competence in figuring things out. School-based health centers have been shown to reduce nonfinancial barriers to health care (Keyl et al., 1996), and families also report more satisfaction with their care than in community or hospital settings (Kaplan et al., 1999). Call, T. Behne, and H. Moll. Children who lived for an extended period in profoundly depriving Romanian orphanages, for example, did not show recovery of dysregulated cortisol reactivity, even after a prolonged period of supportive adoptive care (Gunnar et al., 2001). Nader-Grosbois, N., and N. Lefèvre. 2007. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools 36(1):17-32. 2001. Sandler, A. D., T. E. Watson, M. Footo, M. D. Levine, W. L. Coleman, and S. R. Hooper. Initially, these are inexact estimates, depending on the ratio between the sets (Johnson-Pynn et al., 2005). Given these findings, rich linguistic experiences at early ages may therefore be especially important for these children. The back-and-forth interaction of child and adult activity provides stimulus for the baby’s developing awareness of the adult’s thinking (e.g., she looks at each block before commenting on it or acting intentionally on it) and use of language (e.g., colors are identified for each block, and generic language is used to describe blocks in general). 1988. According to one longitudinal study, language and literacy skills in kindergarten were predicted by several aspects of the language environment at home and in classrooms in the preschool years. Child Development Perspectives 8(4):223-230. Students’ access, knowledge, and use of services. 2):17143-17148. Developmental Science 13(6):900-906. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Celedón-Pattichis, S., S. I. Musanti, and M. E. Marshall. Discussion paper. Experimental evaluation of the effects of a research-based preschool mathematics curriculum. 2009. New England Journal of Medicine 355(24):2523-2532. Pp. The development of executive functions and early mathematics: A dynamic relationship. National Mathematics Advisory Panel. Then a qualitative advance is made as conceptual subitizing develops. Currie, J., and W. R. Walker. An example of building on intuitive understanding to develop a more elaborate understanding of biology comes from a study on teaching preschool through early elementary school children about nutrition. Other evidence suggests that children diagnosed with ADHD may have deficits not in executive processes themselves but in motivation or response to contingencies, that is, the regulation of effort allocation (Huang-Pollock et al., 2012). http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/middle.html (accessed September 15, 2014). Toronto: The Hanen Institute. 2009. In one recent report, the association of attachment security with measures of school engagement in the early primary grades was mediated by differences in children’s social self-control; attentional impulsivity also varied with the security of attachment (Drake et al., 2014; Thompson, 2013). learners are maturationally challenged to manage their attention, emotions, and behavioral impulses effectively in a care setting or classroom. Some additional illustrative examples of the development of implicit theories are provided in Box 4-1. Gunnar, M. R., S. J. Morison, K. Chisholm, and M. Schuder. New York and London: Guilford Press. New York: Routledge. Do subitizing deficits in developmental dyscalculia involve pattern recognition weakness? Vieillevoye, S., and N. Nader-Grosbois. 2001. Glaser, R. 1991. Early Childhood Research Quarterly 19(2):297-318. Greenwood, C., J. Buzhardt, D. Walker, W. Howard, and R. Anderson. Although most studies have focused on specific effects of either cognitive or emotional self-regulation, evidence suggests that the two are interconnected. New York: Guilford Press. Child Development 72(5):1579-1601. 2005. Journal of Personality 70(4):533-552. Child health begins prior to conception and extends through pregnancy and throughout childhood. Mandler, J. M. 2004. Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement across the school year. Journal of Educational Psychology 87:488-503. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 108:677-692. 2013. In Handbook of early literacy research. Geary, D. C., M. K. Hoard, J. Byrd-Craven, L. Nugent, and C. Numtee. Egger, H. L., and A. Angold. PhD diss., Harvard Graduate School of Education. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 113(1):49-65. Children who saw the same evidence but with direct communication for their benefit persisted in trying to elicit the property from other objects (Butler and Markman, 2012a,b). The economics, technology, and neuroscience of human capability formation. Lewit, E. M., and L. S. Baker. They then label small number situations with the corresponding number word, mapping the number word to the numerosity property of the collection. In Handbook of research on the education of young children, edited by B. Spodek and O. N. Saracho. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Berry, D., and E. O’Connor. Adler, N. E., T. Boyce, M. A. Chesney, S. Cohen, S. Folkman, R. L. Kahn, and S. L. Syme. Vol. 2013. Data from a national longitudinal survey show that involvement in Head Start was associated with fewer behavior problems and serious health problems, such as 29 percent less obesity in males at 12 and 13 years of age. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Human Development 45(4):211-225. Infants and toddlers derive implicit theories to explain the actions of objects and the behavior of people; these theories form the foundation for causal learning and more sophisticated understanding of the physical and social worlds. Inequality at birth: Some causes and consequences. Social Cognition 11(2):201-222. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed. 2011. In some cases, children can even experience a regression on some mathematics skills during prekindergarten and kindergarten (Farran et al., 2007; Wright, 1994). Applied Psycholinguistics 32(1):221-241. Although experience is important at any age, early experiences are especially formative in the development of the brain’s structure and function. Infants can use information about the statistics of syllables in the speech they hear to help them parse words. Iron supplementation in infancy contributes to more adaptive behavior at 10 years of age. 173-219. Moreover the intentional (but nonpedagogical) condition versus the pedagogical condition produced strikingly different conceptions of the function (Butler and Markman, 2014). 1999. One explanation for the difficulty students with mathematics learning disabilities have learning basic arithmetic combinations might be delays in understanding counting. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 2(2):127-160. 2012. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 54(4):687-696. Cognition 70(1):27-52. Interventions in the area of self-regulation have shown positive effects for reading achievement (Best et al., 2011; Bierman et al., 2008a; Blair and Diamond, 2008; Blair and Razza, 2007; Diamond and Lee, 2011). Uccelli, P., L. Hemphill, B. Miyake, A., N. P. Friedman, M. J. Emerson, A. H. Witzki, A. Howerter, and T. D. Wager. Poverty often is accompanied by the confluence of multiple sources of chronic stress, such as food insufficiency, housing instability (and sometimes homelessness), exposure to violence, environmental noise and toxins, dangerous neighborhoods, poor childcare and schools, family chaos, parents with limited capacity (e.g., resources, education, knowledge/information, time, physical or mental energy) to be supportive and nurturing, parents who are anxious or depressed, parents who are harsh or abusive caregivers, impoverished parent–child communication, and home environments lacking cognitively stimulating activities (Evans et al., 2012; Fernald et al., 2013). Developmental Psychology 50(3):853-864. Estimating the impact of large cigarette tax hikes: The case of maternal smoking and infant birth weight. 1995. Similarly in mathematics, numbers are first conceptualized as unbreakable categories and then later as composites (e.g., 5 is composed of 3 and 2) (Butterworth, 2005; Sarama and Clements, 2009). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Washington, DC: GAO. The use of generics is thus an indispensable way of learning about the category as a whole. The language environment of the classroom can function as a support for developing the kind of language that is characteristic of the school curriculum—for example, giving children opportunities to develop the sophisticated vocabulary and complex syntax found in texts, beginning at a very early age (Schleppegrell, 2003; Snow and Uccelli, 2009). 1995. The development of the person: Social understanding, relationships, self, conscience. The transition to school: Adaptation in young children with and without intellectual disability. Infancy 11(3):271-294. When they had previously witnessed the adult reaching for the object, they were surprised when the object was in a new location but showed no renewed interest when there was a different object in the old location. American Psychologist 57(2): 111-127. 311-318. Preventing retention: First grade classroom instruction and student characteristics. Master, A., E. M. Markman, and C. S. Dweck. 2001. Nation, K., and M. J. Snowling. Conclusions About Chronic Stress and Adversity, Chronic stress and adversity constitute fundamental risks to learning and academic success as well as to emotional well-being for many young children. Why we must improve teacher–child conversations in preschools and the promise of professional development. In The handbook of childhood cognitive development, 2nd ed., edited by U. C. Goswami. Children’s interest in learning by doing is naturally suited to experimental inquiry related to science or other kinds of inquiry-based learning involving hypothesis and testing, especially in light of the implicit theories of living things and physical causality that children bring to such inquiry (Samarapungavan et al., 2011). 2012. Killing me softly: The fetal origins hypothesis. It is important to point out that these foundational theories are not simply isolated forms of knowledge, but play a profound role in children’s everyday lives and subsequent education. In addition, the need to continually suppress one language for another affords ongoing practice in inhibitory or executive control, which could confer advantages on a range of inhibitory control tasks in children and helps preserve this fundamental ability in aging adults (Bialystok, 2011; Bialystok and Craik, 2010; Bialystok et al., 2009). The two high-school pillars supporting college science. Saxe, R. 2013. The new face of hunger. Understanding the intentions of others: Re-enactment of intended acts by 18-month-old children. 2013. Learning trajectories in mathematics education. In Handbook of child psychology, 5th ed., edited by W. Damon. How young children think of themselves as learners, and in particular their self-perceived efficacy in mastering new understanding, is an early developing and continuously important influence on their academic success. While the rapid brain growth and development that occurs. Hill, E. L. 2004. Self-regulatory competence also may extend to children’s greater attentional focus, cognitive self-control, and persistence in learning situations. Thus, differences in early vocabulary can have cascading, cumulative effects (Fernald et al., 2013; Huttenlocher, 1998). From their simple and straightforward awareness that people act intentionally and are goal directed; that people have positive and negative feelings in response to things around them; and that people have different perceptions, goals, and feelings, young children develop increasingly sophisticated understanding of the mental experiences that cause people to act as they do (Wellman, 2011). Structure, stability, and development of young children’s self-concepts: A multicohort-multioccasion study. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Buhs, E. S., and G. W. Ladd. Pediatrics 108(1):44-53. In addition, prior research has measured a two-way process in a largely unidirectional manner—measuring speech only from parent to child or educator to student. Economics of Education Review 26(1):100-112. 2013. The differential role of initiative and persistence in early childhood. Huttenlocher, J., M. Vasilyeva, E. Cymerman, and S. Levine. Champagne, D. L., R. C. Bagot, F. van Hasselt, G. Ramakers, M. J. Meaney, E. R. de Kloet, M. Joels, and H. Krugers. 2008. Bull, R., and G. Scerif. 2014. Journal of Health Economics 28(3):688-703. 2011. Mind & Language 25(2): 141-168. in press. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. In Handbook of language and literacy: Development and disorders, edited by C. A. Pp. Transfer among phonological tasks in kindergarten: Essential instructional content. Claessens, A., M. Engel, and F. C. Curran. Hyde, D. C., and E. S. Spelke. The role of inattention on academics, fluid reasoning, and visual-spatial functioning in two subtypes of ADHD. Considerable recent research on some of these learning competencies has been conducted using the concept of “executive function,” which generally refers to a set of supervisory functions that regulate and control cognitive activity that affects learning (Vitiello et al., 2011) and allow children to persevere with tasks, including learning tasks, even when facing fatigue, distraction, or decreased motivation. The foundations of lifelong health are built in early childhood. Diagnosing these disorders in young children is a challenge because the behaviors associated with early mental health problems in young children can be different from those observed in adults and adolescents (Egger and Emde, 2011). Race, ethnicity, social class, language, and achievement in mathematics. Socioemotional development contributes to the growth of emotional security that enables young children to fully invest themselves in new learning and to the growth of cognitive skills and competencies that are important for learning. This association has been found for infants, preschool-age children, and older children, suggesting that it is fairly robust. To communicate across fields and between research and practice communities requires being aware of the different categorical frameworks and terms that are used and being able to discuss the various concepts and content—and their implications—with clarity across those different frameworks. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. PLoS Biology 4(5):e125. Proceedings: Biological Sciences 278(1720):2979-2984. Peer rejection as an antecedent of young children’s school adjustment: An examination of mediating processes. 1949. Similarly, the view that young children are egocentric caused many adults to conclude that there was little benefit to talking about people’s feelings until children were older—this despite the fact that most people could see how attentive young children were to others’ emotions and how curious about their causes. 1998. Gergely, G., H. Bekkering, and I. Kiraly. Further research is needed to advance understanding of language-based classroom processes and how dynamic and ongoing interactions facilitate or impede children’s literacy. Not only do young children with stronger oral language competencies acquire new language skills faster than students with poorly developed oral language competencies (Dickinson and Porche, 2011), but they also learn key literacy skills faster, such as phonemic awareness and understanding of the alphabetic principle (Cooper et al., 2002). In particular, these mothers talk more elaboratively with their children in ways that foster the children’s deeper understanding and in so doing help support the children’s cognitive growth (Fivush et al., 2006). Healthy children supported by healthy adults are better prepared to learn. Pp. From very early on, children are not simply passive observers, registering the superficial appearance of things. Cognition 70(1):1. Extensive research documents the positive impact on early language and literacy development when a pediatric professional gives advice to parents about reading developmentally appropriate books with children as early as 6 months of age (AAP Council on Early Childhood et al., 2014). If 6-month-old babies view a human arm reaching for an object, they interpret this as an intentional agent pursuing a specific goal, and they are surprised if the arm reaches for a different object but not if it changes its trajectory as the object’s location changes. 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